ISSN 2147-9720 | E-ISSN 2148-4279
Case Report
Visceral Leishmaniasis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis undergoing treatment with methotrexate: Case report and review of the literature
1 Evangelismos General Hospital, Athens, Greece  
Eur J Rheumatol 2017; 4: 139-141
DOI: 10.5152/eurjrheum.2017.16066
Key Words: Visceral leishmaniasis, immunocompromised patients, rheumatoid arthritis, methotrexate, corticosteroids

There is growing concern regarding the emergence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a disseminated parasitic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, as an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. This association has been principally studied in the context of human immunodeficiency virus infection, but VL has also been reported in patients undergoing treatment with immunosuppressive medication for various indications. Here a case of VL in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis undergoing treatment with methotrexate and corticosteroid is presented. Despite the rarity of such incidents, physicians should include VL in the differential diagnosis because this infection, if left untreated, is characterized by significant mortality. 

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