European Journal of Rheumatology
Literature Review

Periodontal diseases and its association with disease activity in ankylosing spondylitis/SpA: A systematic review


Department of Rheumatology, Apollo Hospitals, Indore, MP, India


Department of Rheumatology, Croydon Healthcare Services NHS Trust, London, UK


Department of Oral Medicine & Radiology, My Dentist Indore Clinic, Indore, MP, India

Eur J Rheumatol 2021; 8: 168-179
DOI: 10.5152/eurjrheum.2020.20177
Read: 775 Downloads: 349 Published: 01 July 2021

A close association between periodontal disease (PD) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has long been speculated. Both diseases are characterized by dysregulation of the host inflammatory response, leading to further destruction of the soft and hard connective tissue. There is evidence of increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and various interleukins in both patients of AS and periodontitis. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review exploring the relationship between AS and PD. We searched MEDLINE & Embase databases (from their inception till October 2019) using appropriate combinations of the following search items with limits ‘(English, Human)’: Ankylosing spondylitis, spondyloarthritis, spondyloarthropathies, spondyloarthritides, spinal disease, musculoskeletal disease, rheumatic disease and periodontitis, PD, periodontoses, parodontoses, chronic periodontitis, gum disease, gingivitis, oral health, dental health, plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL). This search was supplemented by the manual search of bibliographies of the selected articles and conference proceedings of the European League against Rheumatism. Only the reviews and observational studies of cross-sectional, cohort, or case-control type on adult patients with AS were selected. Data were extracted from a predesigned PROforma. A total of 984 articles were identified, and 12 were selected for a detailed appraisal. All the identified studies were of the case-control type. The prevalence of periodontitis ranged from 38% to 88% in patients with AS and 26% to 71% in the control group. Of the 12 studies, 2 showed significant changes in PI, 2 showed altered PPD, 3 showed significantly increased CAL, and 2 showed increased BOP. In 7 studies, periodontitis was seen in a significant number of patients with AS (p<0.05). All the studies reported that the prevalence of PD in patients with AS was higher than that in patients without AS. Our systematic review found an association between AS and PD. Patients with AS show a higher prevalence of periodontitis and poor oral hygiene than the healthy controls.

Cite this article as: Pandey A, Rajak R, Pandey M. Periodontal diseases and its association with disease activity in ankylosing spondylitis/SpA: A systematic review. Eur J Rheumatol 2021; 8(3): 168-79.

EISSN 2148-4279