European Journal of Rheumatology
Case based Review

Central nervous system vasculitis in a patient with axial spondyloarthritis treated with infliximab: A case report and literature review


Clinic of Rheumatology, Naval Hospital of Athens, Athens, Greece

Eur J Rheumatol 2021; 8: 228-231
DOI: 10.5152/eurjrheum.2021.20071
Read: 102 Downloads: 42 Published: 10 November 2021

Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis is a rare form of vasculitis involving the blood vessels of the brain. It may be primary when it is confined to the CNS or secondary in the context of systemic inflammatory conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, or infections. However, there is no known association with axial spondyloarthritis. Herein, we present the case of a 37-year-old man, with axial spondyloarthritis treated with infliximab for 9 years, who presented with persistent fevers, elevated inflammation markers, lateral medullary syndrome, and right-sided hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated multiple cerebral infarcts. Examination of cerebrospinal fluid showed mild lymphocytic pleocytosis and protein elevation. Digital subtraction angiography and transcranial ultrasonography of the cerebral blood vessels revealed luminal narrowing of the basilar and the left posterior cerebral artery. The diagnosis of CNS vasculitis was made and intravenous methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide pulses were administered, leading to fever remission with gradual improvement and resolution of the neurological manifestations.

Cite this article as: Panagopoulos P, Katsifis G. Central nervous system vasculitis in a patient with axial spondyloarthritis treated with infliximab: A case report and literature review. Eur J Rheumatol. 2021;8(4):228-231.

EISSN 2148-4279